Workers and queens are bicolored, having a reddish-orange head and a bright to dullish orange colored mesosoma and legs, punctuated sharply by a deep black gaster. Queens on average vary 14-16 mm in length, and the highly polymorphic workers can potentially attain similar lengths, with the largest majors reaching 11-13 mm. Minors and mediae are typically around 4-9 mm.
Queens are fully claustral and colonies are monogynous
The Florida carpenter ant is omnivorous, taking arthropod food items as well as sweets, such as nectar or the sugary secretions produced by aphids in which they care for and defend. Floridanus is highly productive and colonies grow rapidly, reaching 1,000 workers within the first year and potentially exceeding 8,000 individuals in a mature colony 2-3 years later.